Glossary

From PS4 Developer wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Notes for editors:

  • please use short descriptions and if there is an internal or external resource available, link it
  • if it cannot fit in a single line but needs an entire page without being available in complete elsewhere, please do so.
  • make use of the {{Anchored|glossary term}} tag for making external linking easily

Note for readers:

  • If you think a glossary term should be added and you have no clue how, just post a request on the Discussion page.

Note for external linking:

  • using the {{Glossary|anchored term}} or {{G|anchored term}} tag on another page will produce an anchored link pointing to this Glossary page


Contents

Glossary

0-9


A


B


C

  • C3: The Chaos Communication Congress (C3) is an annual meeting of the international hacker scene, organized by the Chaos Computer Club.
  • cache : a big, but fast memory that transparently improves the performance of a larger, but slower memory or storage device
  • CBC : Cipher-block chaining
  • CCC : The Chaos Computer Club (CCC) is Europe's largest association of hackers.
  • CD-ROM : (compact disc read-only memory) - a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to a computer for data storage and music playback. It is read in an optical disc drive
  • CE : Chip Enable - control signal
  • CEC : Consumer Electronics Control
  • CEPT : European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations
  • chip : (integrated circuit) a miniaturized electronic circuit (consisting mainly of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components) that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material
  • CLE : Command Latch Enable - control signal
  • Collision attack : a Collision attack, on a cryptographic hash tries to find two inputs producing the same hash value, i.e. a hash collision.
  • control store : the memory that stores the microcode of a CPU; originally read-only memory was employed
  • CPU : Central Processing Unit, the portion of a computer system that executes the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary device for performing the computer's functions.
  • CRC : Cyclic redundancy check, CRC32(bit) is used for Ethernet, SCSI and many others
  • CS : Chip Select - control signal
  • CSR : Command Success Rate is a measure to evaluate accuracy for the performance of speech recognition


D

  • dBA : dbA (or dB(A) or synonym dBrn adjusted) are A-weighted decibels, used as standard in many sound level meters for any measurement of environmental noise.
  • DDC : Display Data Channel
  • DMA : Direct memory access
  • DRAM : Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit.
  • DRM : Digital rights management
  • DSA : Digital Signature Algorithm
  • DSP : Digital Signal Processing
  • DVD : (Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) - an optical disc storage media format, and was invented and developed by Philips, Sony, TOSHIBA, and Time Warner in 1995. Its main uses are video and data storage. DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs), but store more than six times as much data


E


F

  • Fault Injection attacks : side channel attack by actively corrupting the operation of the cryptosystem to reveal information.
  • FCC : Federal Communications Commission
  • Flash Memory : Flash Memory in a type of non volatile computer storage chip that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. It was developed from EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) and must be erased in fairly large blocks before these can be rewritten with new data. The high density NAND type must also be programmed and read in (smaller) blocks, or pages, while the NOR type allows a single machine word (byte) to be written or read independently.
  • FLIR : Forward looking infrared, imaging technology that senses infrared radiation / heat


G


H


I

  • I²C : I²C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) is a multimaster serial single-ended computer bus
  • input device : any peripheral piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system
  • input/output : Input/output (I/O), the communication between an information processing system (such as a computer), and the outside world possibly a human, or another information processing system
  • instruction : a group of several bits in a computer program that contains an operation code and usually one or more memory addresses
  • instruction set : see ISA
  • IOPS : IOPS (Input/Output Operations Per Second, pronounced eye-ops) is a common performance measurement used to benchmark computer storage devices like hard disk drives (HDD), solid state drives (SSD), and storage area networks (SAN). As with any benchmark, IOPS numbers published by storage device manufacturers do not guarantee real-world application performance
  • IRQ : Interrupt ReQuest
  • ISA : An Instruction Set Architecture includes a specification of the set of opcodes and native commands
  • IV : Initialization vector


J

  • Jaguar : Jaguar is the codename for the next generation amd64 28nm low-power microarchitecture CPU
  • jailbreak : A jailbreak is the act or tool used to perform the act of breaking out of a chroot or jail in UNIX-like operating systems or bypassing digital rights management (DRM).


K

  • Kernel : Kernel, the central component of most operating systems
  • keyboard : an input device, partially modeled after the typewriter keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches


L


M

  • Mask ROM : Mask ROM (MROM) is a type of read-only memory (ROM) whose contents are programmed by the integrated circuit manufacturer
  • memory : devices that are used to store data or programs (sequences of instructions) on a temporary or permanent basis for use in an electronic digital computer
  • Microcode : Microcode is a layer of hardware-level instructions or data structures involved in the implementation of higher level machine code instructions in many computers and other processors; it resides in special high-speed memory and translates machine instructions into sequences of detailed circuit-level operations.
  • MMIO : Memory-mapped I/O
  • monitor : an electronic visual display for computers. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure
  • motherboard : the central printed circuit board (PCB) in many modern computers and holds many of the crucial components of the system, while providing connectors for other peripherals
  • mouse : a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface


N

  • NAND : NAND Flash Memory, a type of non-volatile computer memory
  • NC : Not Connected, referencing to a pin that is not used and not connected
  • network : a collection of computers and devices connected by communications channels that facilitates communications among users and allows users to share resources with other users
  • NFC : Near Field Communication, a set of standards for smartphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other.
  • Non-volatile memory : nonvolatile memory, NVM or non-volatile storage is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered.
  • non-volatile random-access memory : Non-volatile random-access memory (NVRAM) is random-access memory that retains its information when power is turned off (non-volatile). This is in contrast to dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) and static random-access memory (SRAM), which both maintain data only for as long as power is applied
  • nonce: a nonce is an arbitrary number used only once in a cryptographic communication (which was the basis for the PS3 ECDSA fail of Sony until 3.55 and lower).
  • NOR : NOR Flash Memory, a type of non-volatile computer memory


O

  • Octets : An Octet is a unit of eight bits
  • OE : Output Enable - control signal
  • OpenCL : OpenCL (Open Computing Language)
  • OpenGL : OpenGL is a cross-language, multi-platform API for rendering 2D and 3D computer graphics.
  • OpenGL ES : OpenGL for Embedded Systems is a subset of the OpenGL 3D graphics application programming interface (API) designed for embedded systems
  • Operation code : opcode (operation code), Several bits in a computer program instruction that specify which operation to perform.
  • Operating system : An operating system (OS) is a set of software that manages computer hardware resources and provide common services for computer programs.
  • optical disc drive : (OD or ODD) - is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs
  • optical disc drive emulator : (ODE or ODDE) - is a device that emulates the behaviour of an optical disc drive, thus allowing the loading of disk drive images and bypassing disc security
  • Orbis : The internal codename for the Playstation 4
  • OTP : One Time Pad


P

  • PCI Express : Peripheral Component Interconnect Express, officially abbreviated as PCIe, is a computer expansion bus standard designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards.
  • PCI-X : PCI-X, short for PCI-eXtended, is a computer bus and expansion card standard that enhances the 32-bit PCI Local Bus for higher bandwidth demanded by servers.
  • pen drive : another name for a USB flash drive, a type of USB Mass Storage Device
  • peripheral : a device attached to a host computer but not part of it, and is more or less dependent on the host. It expands the host's capabilities, but does not form part of the core computer architecture. Examples of computer peripherals: keyboard, mouse, USB drive, router, external SSD or HDD drive.
  • personal computer : (PC) - any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator
  • Pfs : Perfect forward secrecy
  • Piconet: Piconet is a network that is created using a wireless Bluetooth connection. A network of Piconets is a Scatternet
  • PlayGo : PlayGo allows quicker start to supported games (need only a transferred portion of the game data).
  • POST : Power-on self-test
  • printer : a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies
  • Privilege escalation : Privilege escalation is the act of exploiting a bug, design flaw or configuration oversight in an operating system or software application to gain elevated access to resources that are normally protected from an application or user.
  • PROM : programmable read-only memory (PROM) or field programmable read-only memory (FPROM) or one-time programmable non-volatile memory (OTP NVM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse. Such PROMs are used to store programs permanently. The key difference from a strict ROM is that the programming is applied after the device is constructed.
  • PS+ : PlayStation Plus is a subscribed membership for PSN, which gives members monthly free games, discounts, early access to betas and free trials
  • PSGL : PSGL is a 3D computer graphics API based on OpenGL ES
  • PSN : PlayStation Network, the online gaming network & online shop from Sony.
  • PSU : (power supply unit) - A unit of the computer that converts mains AC to low-voltage regulated DC for the power of all the computer components


Q

R

  • R/B : Ready/Busy - control signal
  • RAID : (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) - an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives in order to increase reliability, allow faster access, or both
  • race condition : A race condition or race hazard is the behavior of an electronic or software system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when events do not happen in the order the programmer intended.
  • RAM : Random-Access Memory, a form of computer data storage. Today, it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order (i.e., at random)
  • RC : In a PCI Express (PCIe) system, a Root Complex device connects the processor and memory subsystem to the PCI Express switch fabric composed of one or more switch devices.
  • RE : Read Enable - control signal
  • RESET : Reset - control signal
  • Real mode : Real mode or real address mode
  • RIV : Reset Initialization Vector, used with AES
  • RNG : A Random Number Generator (RNG) is a computational or physical device designed to generate a sequence of numbers or symbols that lack any pattern or predictability, i.e. appear random.
  • RNG attack : Random Number Generator attack
  • ROM : (Read-Only Memory) - a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices
  • ROM mark : ROM_Mark contains the Volume ID for decrypting AACS content. see also BCA
  • ROP : Return-Oriented Programming is a computer security exploit technique that allows an attacker to execute code in the presence of security defenses such as non-executable memory and code signing
  • RSA : RSA algorithm, see also RSA Key Extraction via Low-Bandwidth Acoustic Cryptanalysis
  • RTC : Real-Time Clock


S

  • SACD : Super Audio CD
  • sandbox : a sandbox is a security mechanism for separating running programs.
  • SCLK : Serial Clock Input, as used for e.g. Serial Flash / SPI bus
  • SCSI : SCSI, Small Computer System Interface
  • SDK : Software development kit, a set of software development tools
  • SDP : Service discovery Protocols are network protocols used to allow devices to discover what services (and theirs characteristics) each other support.
  • SEN : Sony Entertainment Network
  • server : any combination of hardware or software designed to provide services to clients. When used alone, the term typically refers to a computer which may be running a server operating system, but is also used to refer to any software or dedicated hardware capable of providing services
  • SI : Serial Data Input, datasignal used for e.g. Serial Flash / SPI bus
  • side channel attack : a side channel attack is any (passive) attack based on information gained from the physical implementation of a cryptosystem, rather than brute force or theoretical weaknesses in the algorithms
  • SIMD : Streaming SIMD Extensions
  • SIO : Serial Data Input & Output, datasignal used for e.g. Serial Flash / SPI bus
  • SKU : Stock Keeping Unit, an alphanumerical identifier of each seperate model
  • SO : Serial Data Output, datasignal used for e.g. Serial Flash / SPI bus
  • SOE : Sony Online Entertainment, see also player-studio.soe
  • software : a general term primarily used for digitally stored data such as computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by computers. Today, this includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes and records
  • Solid-state drive : A solid-state drive (SSD), sometimes called a solid-state disk or electronic disk, is a data storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently.
  • SPI bus : Serial Peripheral Interface Bus, a synchronous serial data link standard that operates in full duplex mode
  • SR : Speech recognition
  • SRESET : Soft Reset, without erasing
  • SSE-SSE4 : Streaming SIMD Extensions-SSE4
  • state machine : a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. It is conceived as an abstract machine that can be in one of a finite number of states.
  • Static random-access memory : Static random-access memory (SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory where the word static indicates that, unlike dynamic RAM (DRAM), it does not need to be periodically refreshed.
  • SWER : Single Word Error Rate is a measure to evaluate accuracy for the performance of speech recognition.
  • Synchronous dynamic random-access memory : Synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) is dynamic random access memory (DRAM) that is synchronized with the system bus.


T

  • TDEA : Triple Data Encryption Algorithm, Triple DES, aka 3DES
  • Thermal grease : Thermal Grease (also called thermal gel, thermal compound, thermal paste, heat paste, heat sink paste or heat sink compound) is a viscous fluid substance, originally with properties akin to grease, which increases the thermal conductivity of a thermal interface by filling microscopic air-gaps present due to the imperfectly flat and smooth surfaces of the components.
  • Timer : timer
  • TLV : Type-Length-Value is a encoding scheme.
  • touchpad : or trackpad - a pointing device consisting of specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on screen
  • TPM : Trusted Platform Module


U

  • UART : Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter
  • UHD : Ultra high definition television, videoformats 4K UHD (2160p) and 8K UHD (4320p) - Youtube and Vimeo support streaming 4K (4096 × 3072)
  • URB : (USB request block) - an URB is used to send or receive data to or from a specific USB endpoint on a specific USB device in an asynchronous manner.
  • USB : (Universal Serial Bus) - a specification to establish communication between devices and a host controller (usually a personal computers). USB is intended to replace many varieties of serial and parallel ports.
  • USB flash drive : a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.1, 2.0, or 3.0 interface. USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, and much smaller in physical size than a floppy disc
  • UUID : A universally unique identifier is an identifier standard used in software construction.


V


W

  • WDT : A watchdog timer (sometimes called a computer operating properly or COP timer, or simply a watchdog) is an electronic timer that is used to detect and recover from computer malfunctions.
  • WE : Write Enable - control signal
  • Webcam : A webcam is a video camera that feeds its images in real time to a computer or computer network, often via USB, Ethernet, or WI-Fi.
  • WebGL : WebGL
  • WiFi : Wi-Fi
  • WLAN : Wireless LAN
  • WP : Write Protect - control signal
  • W^X : W^X "Write XOR Execute"


X


Y


Z


SYMBOLS

  • ° : degree (symbol: °) used for degrees of arc / hours / temperature etc.
  •  : diameter (symbol: ) diameter of a conic section is typically defined as any chord which passes through the conic's centre
  • µ : micro (symbol: µ) is a prefix in the SI and other systems of units denoting a factor of 10-6 (one millionth)
  •  : numero (symbol: ) abbreviation of the word number(s) indicating ordinal numeration
  • Ω : ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance


More